Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, and Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions often exist for racing between clubs, schools, and universities in each nation.
Comparing the rowing machine to the stationary bike, the rowing machine is superior in terms of calories burned. Yet, it’s important to note that the stationary bike is also easy on the joints and only includes the lower body. So, if you have any upper body problems then the stationary bike will be a much better choice. In 30 minutes of cycling 12-13 miles per hour, an 125lb individual will burn around 225-250 calories.
Row for 1 minute applying as much power and force as you can, then take 1 minute of very light strokes for rest. That’s one rep. Complete 5 reps and then take a short break, no more than a few minutes, before moving on to the next set. Similarly, the goal is to hold the lowest split possible in the hard pieces. The prescribed stroke rates are 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 for the first set; 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 for the second; and 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 for the third. 
The dense resistance of water creates substantial drag, but on the WaterRower models, this is perfectly tempered by a whippy cord. It coils and recoils with such steady speed that one tester noted how the Classic “eats the rope back up on recovery.” This smooth agility helps balance out the impact of encountering slow water at the start of every stroke.
Noise level is another large factor that tips the scale more towards water rowers. Air rowers make a fairly loud “whooshing” noise every stroke, which makes them bad for people who like watching TV, have sleeping children, live in apartments, or like working out early in the AM. Water rowers do make some noise but the splashing of water in the tank is a lot quieter and more soothing than the fan noise produced by air rowers.
Ever since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of 1430 BC records that the warrior Amenhotep (Amenophis) II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship. In the Aeneid, Virgil mentions rowing forming part of the funeral games arranged by Aeneas in honour of his father.[10] In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regata included boat races among others.[11]

If you’re just beginning your journey to get in shape, the maze of complicated workout machines at the gym might have your head spinning. Don’t worry! Exercising on a rowing machine is relatively simple to learn and ideal for all ages and abilities. It’s important to make sure you use proper rowing technique when you exercise. It will help to both maximize your workout and minimize the potential for injury. Your feet should be securely fastened in the stirrups with your shins close to a 90 degree angle to the floor. It’s best to keep your back straight, your core engaged, and to row in a smooth, fluid motion. You’ll get the hang of it in no time!

Currently available ergometer (flywheel-type) rowing machines use a spring or elastic cord to take up the pull chain/strap and return the handle. Advances in elastic cord and spring technology have contributed to the longevity and reliability of this strategy, but it still has disadvantages. With time and usage, an elastic element loses its strength and elasticity. Occasionally it will require adjustment, and eventually it will no longer take up the chain with sufficient vigour, and will need to be replaced. The resilience of an elastic cord is also directly proportional to temperature. In an unheated space in a cold climate, an elastic cord equipped rowing ergometer is unusable because the chain take-up is too sluggish. Thus, as the result of several factors, the force required to stretch the elastic cord is a variable, not a constant. This is of little consequence if the exercise device is used for general fitness, but it is an unacknowledged problem, the "dirty little secret", of indoor rowing competitions. The electronic monitor only measures the user input to the flywheel. It does not measure the energy expenditure to stretch the elastic cord. A claim of a "level playing field" cannot be made when a resistance variable exists (that of the elastic cord) which is not measured or monitored in any way (see more on this in "Competitions" section).
In a 1988 US patent (US4772013A), Elliot Tarlow discloses another non-elastic chain/cable take-up and handle return strategy. Described and depicted is a continuous chain/cable loop that passes around the flywheel sprocket and around and between fixed pulleys and sprockets positioned fore and aft on the device. The handle is secured in the middle of the exposed upper horizontal section of the chain/cable loop. Although somewhat lacking in aesthetics, the Tarlow device does eliminate the stated disadvantages and defects of the ubiquitous elastic cord handle return. Tarlow further argues that the disclosed method provides an improved replication of rowing because in actual rowing the rower is not assisted by the contraction of a spring or elastic cord during the "recovery" portion of the stroke. The rower must push the oar handle forward against wind and oarlock resistance in preparation for the next stroke. Tarlow asserts that the invention replicates that resistance.
The standard measurement of speed on an ergometer is generally known as the "split", or the amount of time in minutes and seconds required to travel 500 metres (1,600 ft) at the current pace — a split of 2:00 represents a speed of two minutes per 500 metres, or about 4.17 m/s (15.0 km/h). The split does not necessarily correspond to how many strokes the rower takes (the "rating") since strokes can vary in power.
An 'oar' is often referred to as a blade in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a scull in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweep-oared. He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient (due to the symmetry).
Proposition 65 requires businesses to provide Californians with a clear and reasonable warning about chemicals in the products they purchase, in their home or workplace, or that are released into the environment. By providing this information, Proposition 65 enables Californians to make informed decisions about protecting themselves from exposure to these chemicals. Proposition 65 also prohibits California businesses from knowingly discharging significant amounts of listed chemicals into sources of drinking water.
It's been nearly 30 years since John Duke, a former Yale University and USA National Team oarsman, set up a small shop in Rhode Island, USA to begin fine-tuning his innovative water-resistant rowing machine. With its beautiful design and unmatched feel, the WaterRower quickly gained a cult-like following of both on-water rowers and fitness enthusiasts that had found their perfect piece of workout equipment. As word spread of the new product that simulated the feel of on-water rowing, WaterRower transitioned from simply a one-off product found within the occasional boathouse to an established brand in both the rowing and fitness world.
This is a company known for quality as well as stewardship for over 20 years. WaterRower hand-crafts their rowing machines to be more than just a workout machine, but also a work of art as well. Also, WaterRower is and has been on the cutting edge of environmental sustainability with their use of the best hardwoods coming from renewable forests. We’re in excellent hands here.
A bumps race is a multi-day race beginning with crews lined up along the river at set intervals. They start simultaneously and all pursue the boat ahead while avoiding being bumped by a boat from behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result, damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped. The positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to non-university crews. Oxford's races are organised by City of Oxford Rowing Club[41] and Cambridge's are organised by the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association.

Indoor rowing primarily works the cardiovascular systems with typical workouts consisting of steady pieces of 20–40 minutes, although the standard trial distance for record attempts is 2000 m, which can take from five and a half minutes (best elite rowers) to nine minutes or more. Like other forms of cardio focused exercise, interval training is also commonly used in indoor rowing. While cardio-focused, rowing also stresses many muscle groups throughout the body anaerobically, thus rowing is often referred to as a strength-endurance sport.


Regular workouts on a rower can help you burn calories, tone muscles, and give you increased energy. A rowing machine workout burns an average of 600 calories an hour. That’s more efficient than many other home gym machines on the market. On a stationary bike without arm involvement, you’d need to ride about 78 minutes to equal a 60 minute workout on a rowing machine. Combined with eating a healthy, balanced diet, using a rowing machine consistently is a great way to help you achieve your fitness goals.

An 'oar' is often referred to as a blade in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a scull in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweep-oared. He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient (due to the symmetry).

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Air resistance models use vanes on the flywheel to provide the flywheel braking needed to generate resistance.[6] As the flywheel is spun faster, the air resistance increases. An adjustable vent can be used to control the volume of air moved by the vanes of the rotating flywheel, therefore a larger vent opening results in a higher resistance, and a smaller vent opening results in a lower resistance. The energy dissipated can be accurately calculated given the known moment of inertia of the flywheel and a tachometer to measure the deceleration of the flywheel. Air resistance rowing machines are most often used by sport rowers (particularly during the off season and inclement weather) and competitive indoor rowers. RowPerfect, Oartec, and Concept 2, are three manufacturers of this type of rowing machine.
The Rekers rowing ergometer (referenced above) is described in the title of the patent document as "dynamically balanced", rather than simply "dynamic", as is common among users. "Dynamically balanced" is the accurate description, for the following reason: During the drive portion of the stroke, since the sliding carriage to which the footrests are attached, and the sliding seat, can both move independently fore and aft on a rail or rails, therefore the straightening of the user's legs causes the footrests to slide forward, and simultaneously causes the seat to slide rearward. However, since the combined mass of the seat and user is considerably greater than the combined mass of the footrests and sliding carriage (and flywheel, if it is part of the sliding footrests assembly), therefore the rearward movement of the seat and user, relative to ground, is much less than the forward movement of the footrests and carriage assembly, relative to ground. During the recovery portion of the stroke, this difference in mass has the same effect. The sliding footrests carriage, and the sliding seat carrying the user move proportionately the same distances relative to ground as during the drive as they return to their starting positions. Thus, during use, the combined mass of the footrest and sliding carriage, and the combined mass of the user and sliding seat, move towards and away from each other, as they oscillate about their common centre of gravity. To ensure the linked movement of these two masses remain centred on the device, the rail or rails upon which they slide are sloped upward slightly at their front and rear ends. Alternatively, elastic cords or springs attached to the seat and footrests can ensure such centering.
Studios like Orangetheory, CityRow and Equinox all offer classes each week to introduce new users to rowing, as well as help rowing veterans crush their goals. “The rowing machine makes for one of the most efficient workouts, and intervals on the rowing machine are a great workout. If you’ve ever used a rowing machine, you’ll immediately note that you don’t have to do it for hours like you would running or cycling. You can get an incredible workout in 30 minutes,” Bryan Volpenheim, two-time Olympic medalist and previous head coach of the US Men’s National Rowing Team, says. The typical 45-minute workout is non-impact, so unlike running, “it’s low impact so it’s not hard on your joints,” Volpenheim says.
Don't let chronic lower back pain deter you from giving the rowing machine a try. Done properly, this is a great exercise for strengthening your back, and as a bonus, it rarely leads to the type of chronic knee, ankle, and foot injuries that can plague runners. If you have a temperamental back, be sure to keep your core braced, and that you're not laying too far back at the conclusion of each stroke. (Here, closer to 11 o'clock than 9 o'clock.)
The Waterrower has recently been made famous by Kevin Spacy as the rowing machine used in the ‘House of Cards’. It is a type of wooden rowing machine produced and manufactured by Waterrower Inc. in New England, USA. The rowers were designed by ex-US national team rower john Duke in the mid 1980’s and the company to manufacture them was established in 1988.

The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point is the load point for the oar to act as a second class lever (the blade fixed in the water is the fulcrum). In flatwater rowing, the boat (also called a shell or fine boat) is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks ( also called gates ) at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat.[8] Racing boats also have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to apply power to the oar.


Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, and the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games. The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions.
Factors which affect the force required to stretch the elastic cord are: the tension of the cord, the amount of usage of the machine, ambient temperature. Typically, the elastic cord is factory adjusted to approximately seven pounds of return force. On the Concept 2 website "Forum" much anecdotal evidence has been posted of new machines feeling "heavier" than used machines, that more effort is required to achieve the same monitored result on a new machine than on one that has been worn-in. This is understandable. Any elastic element loses elastic strength with time and usage.
Function plays a large role in defining good design. When designers look at an object, they don't just consider its aesthetic appearance; they should also challenge it to be more versatile, to respond to the user's need, or to achieve its purpose more elegantly. Good design has the capacity to solve problems that sometimes we didn't even know we had. This is one of the ways design touches and enriches our everyday life.
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