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As with any fitness activity, it’s important to exercise with proper technique, however. The big muscles in the legs are where most of the workout action should be. Injury to the lower back can occur from bending too far forward in the row. It’s best to maintain a upright 90 degree angle to the rowing machine’s seat and slider bar. Using the legs for the motion rather than relying as heavily on the back or arms can help reduce the chance of muscle pulls or other related injuries. Always check with a physician before starting any new fitness regimen.
Rheological fluid resistance: In the patent record various exercise devices, including rowing machines, are depicted and described utilizing flywheels in which rotational resistance is controlled by varying the viscosity of a magnetically or electrically reactive fluid (magnetorheological or electrorheological fluid). It seems probable therefore that at some time commercially available rowing machines will include those with flywheels containing variable viscosity fluid.
The WaterRower Club is outfitted with a Series 4 performance monitor that's designed to balance technical sophistication with user-friendliness. The monitor--which includes six information and programming windows, six QuickSelection buttons, and three navigation buttons--displays your workout intensity, stroke rate, heart rate, zone bar, duration, and distance. Plus, the monitor is compatible with an optional heart rate chest strap and receiver, which helps you optimize your workout and achieve your exercise objectives.
In 1981, Peter and Richard Dreissigacker, and Jonathan Williams, filed for U.S. patent protection, as joint inventors of a "Stationary Rowing Unit". The patent was granted in 1983 (US4396188A). The first commercial embodiment of the Concept2 "rowing ergometer" (as it came to be known) was the Model A, a fixed-frame sliding-seat design using a bicycle wheel with fins attached for air resistance. The Model B, introduced in 1986, introduced a solid cast flywheel (now enclosed by a cage) and the first digital performance monitor, which proved revolutionary. This machine's capability of accurate calibration combined with easy transportability spawned the sport of competitive indoor rowing, and revolutionised training and selection procedures for watercraft rowing. Later models were the C (1993) and D (2003). [2][4]
One of the most common brand of ergometers is Concept2.[33] The company offers multiple types of models, including the Model D, Model E, and the dynamic rower. An updated Rowperfect brand of dynamic rowers, RP3, produces ergometers that more naturally mimic the feel and resistance of rowing in a shell on the water. It additionally, shows a dynamic force curve of power that provides the rower with detailed information about their stroke which they can use to improve technique and get stronger.[34]
Don't know why, perhaps due to rising demand and production bandwidth, but be forewarned quality control is an issue. Assembly is easy enough, though have gap where back separator does not fit snugly after tightening nuts as firm as they will go (see pic). No water level sticker on tank received, so had to measure water manually according to calculations (4 gallons). Siphon was not air tight (even though release valve closed firmly), so had to manually pump instead of siphon. S4 monitor only flashes, not working as of yet and now have to take a apart top of unit to figure out why, currently not resolved after verifying connections and looking at simple solutions on website.
Just like with other cardio machines, it’s highly recommended that you start off slow, especially if you’ve never used a rowing machine before. While walking and cycling are natural movements, rowing definitely isn’t, so don’t look around at seasoned pros and think you need to keep up (cue breathless panting). The potential for injury and pain isn’t worth it. Start off at a low resistance, remaining at that level until you’ve perfected your form and rowing motion. Once you’ve got those down and are feeling comfortable, feel free to increase the resistance and vary your workout. This takes time, so don’t be disappointed if you don’t catch on after the first few strokes.
While the rowing machine is an incredibly efficient, full-body workout that allows the athlete to build aerobic endurance and muscular strength at the same time, a lack of proper technique and training is common among gym-goers and can lead to injuries and misuse. So we asked experts from the number one collegiate men’s crew team in the country at the University of California – Berkeley—Head Coach Mike Teti and Associate Head Coach Scott Frandsen—to give you the lowdown on everything you need to know about the rowing machine. Both are Olympic medalists (Teti is both a medalist as an athlete and a coach) who know exactly what it takes, in the gym and on the water, to get in gold medal-winning shape.
It's cool that you can reach really far forward and pull really far backward, but focusing on getting the longest possibles strokes risks "over-compression," explains Crawford, a condition that causes knee pain by transferring the load to the quads. Hamstrings and glutes are the big muscles here, and you want them doing the big work. Be sure to keep your core braced, and when you lean forward, stay closer to 1 o'clock than 3 o'clock.
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I have also received negative feedback about the resistance. After 15 minutes at the maximum level, you will feel that you are hardly putting an effort to row. However, this won’t be an issue if your weight is less. This could indicate an issue with the oil or gasoline mixture in the piston. Also, issues were mentioned by other customers with the footrests. They’d problem strapping their feet. It is a bigger issue as it becomes difficult for people who have small feet as the feet keeps on slipping. The footrest grip is not tight. This is affecting particularly when you would like to experience a workout without any interruption; when you actually want to go with the flow of workout. Fast rowing also becomes difficult with this type of problem as you have to stop and strap the feet back. However, the problem could be solved by using a wide and thick Velcro straps. Use your creativity and be resourceful while coming up with the ideas to solve the problem of slipping feet.
While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward (towards the bow). This may be done on a canal, river, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance.[5]
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The WaterRower Club is outfitted with a Series 4 performance monitor that's designed to balance technical sophistication with user-friendliness. The monitor--which includes six information and programming windows, six QuickSelection buttons, and three navigation buttons--displays your workout intensity, stroke rate, heart rate, zone bar, duration, and distance. Plus, the monitor is compatible with an optional heart rate chest strap and receiver, which helps you optimize your workout and achieve your exercise objectives.
The standard length races for the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships is 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) long; 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) - 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) for US high school races on the east coast; and 1,000 m for masters rowers (rowers older than 27). However the race distance can and does vary from dashes or sprints, which may be 500 metres (1,640 ft) long, to races of marathon or ultra-marathon length races such as the Tour du Léman in Geneva, Switzerland which is 160 kilometres (99 mi),[36] and the 2 day, 185-kilometre (115 mi) Corvallis to Portland Regatta[37] held in Oregon, USA. In the UK, regattas are generally between 500 metres (1,640 ft) and 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) long.

In 1995, Casper Rekers, a Dutch engineer, was granted a U.S. patent for a "Dynamically Balanced Rowing Simulator" (US5382210A). This device differed from the prior art in that the flywheel and footrests are fixed to a carriage, the carriage being free to slide fore and aft on a rail or rails integral to the frame. The seat is also free to slide fore and aft on a rail or rails integral to the frame. From the patent Abstract: "During exercise, the independent seat and energy dissipating unit move apart and then together in a co-ordinated manner as a function of the stroke cycle of the oarsman.". "RowPerfect" and "Oartec" are two companies which currently manufacture commercial embodiments of the Rekers device.


I loathe exercise. Will do almost anything to avoid it, like holding down a couch or going to wash a car. But the time came to find something that I could do that would get me into regular exercise and make the most of the time. After researching, I found that rowing was almost universally lauded as a great full body workout that does not abuse your joints, and requires only a minimal time commitment. After searching and researching , the Water Rower consistently came out at the top of the pile. So I spent the big bucks and ordered one.
In the patent record, means are disclosed whereby the chain/cable take-up and handle return are accomplished without the use of a spring or elastic cord, thereby avoiding the stated disadvantages and defects of this broadly used method. One example is the Gjessing-Nilson device described above. Partially discernable in the thumbnail photo, it utilizes a cable wrapped around a helical pulley on the flywheel shaft, the ends of this cable being connected to opposite ends of a long pole to which a handle is fixed. The obvious disadvantage of this system is the forward space requirement to accommodate the extension of the handle pole at the "catch" portion of the stroke. The advantage is that, except for small transmission losses, all of the user's energy output is imparted to the flywheel, where it can be accurately measured, not split between the flywheel and an elastic cord of variable, unmeasured resistance. If a similar system were installed on all rowing ergometers used in indoor rowing competitions, consistency between machines would be guaranteed because the variability factor of elastic cord resistance would be eliminated, and this would therefore ensure that the monitor displayed actual user energy input.
This popular rowing machine utilizes magnetic resistance for a quiet, and very smooth workout. The Velocity Exercise CHR-2001 also features a programmable computer with 12 programs that will keep your exercising varied and challenging for years. The computer also provides data on distance, time, calories burned, pulse rate, strokes per minute, and stroke count. Additionally, the tension resistance is electronically controlled via the computer.  This electronic resistance control feature puts the CHR-2001 ahead of other magnetic rowers that tend to use knobs.

While you may be tempted to hunch your back and shoulders forward, refrain from doing so. This incorrect posture will put intense strain on the wrong parts of your body, resulting in more soreness and less results (no, thank you!). Instead, sit up straight. Your back will naturally arch just slightly—that’s okay! Don’t attempt to overcorrect it. Now, bend forward using your hips. Once the handle passes over your knees, bend your legs.


As far as “racing”, I said an air rowing machine is better because the Concept2 is the only model used for indoor rowing competitions, setting world records, and entering your actual scores online. It is because their monitor can calculate the drag factor of the flywheel in real time and accurately calculate distance and time. Small changes such as dust build up, air temperature, and humidity will not change the times between different machines because the drag factor is calculated every stroke.
Rowing is a repetitive, rhythmic motion, meaning you have to match up your breathing to that rhythm. Have you ever linked your breathing to your running or swimming? This is just like that. Similar to strength workouts, you want to breathe out when exerting power and breathe in when recovering. In this case, that means breathing out when you push with your legs and pull back, and breathing in when you’re resetting (rebending your legs).
This affordable rowing machine is streamlined, simple to use, built well, has a comfy seat with a realistic rowing movement, and especially good for a newbie. Because the cost of this machine is less than $150, it is popular on the net. As it has a hydraulic rower, resistance is provided by just one piston under the main key column. Along with a comfy cushioned seat, LCD screen, this machine provides 12 hydraulic cylinder resistances.
Machines with a digital display calculate the user's power by measuring the speed of the flywheel during the stroke and then recording the rate at which it decelerates during the recovery. Using this and the known moment of inertia of the flywheel, the computer is able to calculate speed, power, distance and energy usage. Some ergometers can be connected to a personal computer using software, and data on individual exercise sessions can be collected and analysed. In addition, some software packages allows users to connect multiple ergometers either directly or over the internet for virtual races and workouts.

As you might expect, rowing machines provide a stellar upper-body workout. Rowers exercise the rhomboids in the shoulders, trapezii in the upper back, and lats in the lower back. The benefits of a stronger back and shoulders include improved posture as well as a reduction in back pain. In addition to your backside, rowing machines also provide a nice workout for your biceps, pecs, and abs, which helps you develop a stronger core. Because you need to maintain a strong grip on the oars, you’ll also develop stronger hands and wrists, which is a big plus for anyone who enjoys activities such as climbing or yoga.


Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Often prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, and Westminster School. Similarly, clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815. At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time; in England Leander Club was founded in 1818, in Germany Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club was founded in 1836 and in the United States Narragansett Boat Club was founded in 1838 and Detroit Boat Club was founded in 1839. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University.

Just like with other cardio machines, it’s highly recommended that you start off slow, especially if you’ve never used a rowing machine before. While walking and cycling are natural movements, rowing definitely isn’t, so don’t look around at seasoned pros and think you need to keep up (cue breathless panting). The potential for injury and pain isn’t worth it. Start off at a low resistance, remaining at that level until you’ve perfected your form and rowing motion. Once you’ve got those down and are feeling comfortable, feel free to increase the resistance and vary your workout. This takes time, so don’t be disappointed if you don’t catch on after the first few strokes.


In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands. This is generally done in pairs, fours, and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is rowing on bow side and/or the bow oarsman on stroke side.
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Now back to the aesthetics, this version of WaterRower’s natural wood line of rowers comes in beautiful Black Walnut, which the company chose for its superior sound and vibration absorption. It’s hand-made in the USA and comes with excellent warranties and customer service. Overall, WaterRower is known for the quality of their rowing machines and the Classic is no exception.  And if you do want to get this rower just as an attractive conversation piece, it easily stores upright against a wall.  That said, we strongly recommend using The WaterRower Classic Rowing Machine for fitness, not just eye-candy.
As you might expect, rowing machines provide a stellar upper-body workout. Rowers exercise the rhomboids in the shoulders, trapezii in the upper back, and lats in the lower back. The benefits of a stronger back and shoulders include improved posture as well as a reduction in back pain. In addition to your backside, rowing machines also provide a nice workout for your biceps, pecs, and abs, which helps you develop a stronger core. Because you need to maintain a strong grip on the oars, you’ll also develop stronger hands and wrists, which is a big plus for anyone who enjoys activities such as climbing or yoga.
I kayak (ocean and flat water, not river), so I was drawn to the WaterRower over a flywheel type rower (which I have used in gyms) because I wanted to hear the sound of the water, which I miss hearing against the hull of the boat during the winter when I can't get out on the lake. I also like the way the paddles engage in the water; it's a very smooth pull and release, and moving the mass of the water instead of a dialed down tension feels more natural. As someone else also commented, the seat (at least on the wood version) is incredibly smooth and solid; no wobbling at all. I generally listen to music on my Nordic Track ski machine, but with the WaterRower I am content to listen to the sound of the water; working out on this is somehow both energizing and calmingly meditative at the same time. In the event that you want to use it while watching tv (this is one use to which I wanted to put it), it is quiet enough to hear the tv without having to turn it up.
Another negative point for me is the angle of the seat. Unlike the Concept2, it has a slight backward angle, which makes it easier to maintain good form at the end of the stroke. Given that the Waterrower has greater resistance at the catch, it puts more pressure on the lower back at this point making it uncomfortable for people like myself with lumbar spine problems.
If exercising is something you dread, it is a lot harder to motivate yourself to do it. Making a fitness plan that you enjoy is your key to success. Because rowing works out your entire body, it’s easier to stay engaged while doing it. Plus, you can challenge yourself by increasing the resistance as you become a more seasoned rower. Crank up the speakers and row to the beat of your favorite tracks, put your favorite show on the TV, or recruit a workout buddy for extra encouragement. Once you become a pro, you’ll be feeling so good that hopping on your rowing machine will be a treat!
We’ll be the first to admit that when the weather is nice we’d rather be outdoors than inside working out. Concept2 employees are active outside year-round in all kinds of weather skiing, running, mountain biking, paddling, road cycling, hiking… and rowing! We encourage you to spend some time outdoors, too. But there are good reasons to keep in touch with your favorite indoor workouts in spring and summer. Continue Reading ›
I would like to begin reviewing the screen. It’s quite simple to use. It doesn’t offer many things and that is what anticipated in a rowing machine that is under $150. As the LCD screen is too small, you need to keep yourself motivated some way or the other; music is a good way by the way. It’s only an easy screen that can show some basic information while you row such as the length of time you rowed in a single session and how much you’ve rowed. Additionally, it can give you a good idea about the approx. number of calories burned and strokes performed.  And that’s it. The LCD screen doesn’t show anything new. No preset applications are contained, and there is no way to save your workout information.
The second type is characterized by the Rekers device (referenced above). With this type, both the seat and the footrests are free to slide fore and aft on a rail or rails integral to a stationary frame. Therefore, during use, the seat and the footrests move relative to each other, and both also move relative to ground. This type is often referred to as a "dynamic" rowing ergometer, although "dynamically balanced" would be a more accurate description. A static indoor rower of the Dreissigacker/Williams type, if mounted on wheels or slides to enable forward and rearward movement of the unit, is by definition "dynamically balanced". The accessory slide tracks correspond to the referenced stationary frame of the Rekers device. Casper Rekers is nevertheless credited as the first to utilize this motion type in a rowing ergometer. The effect, for the user, is a more realistic "on the water" sensation than that provided by a "stationary" rowing ergometer because the "dynamically balanced" type more closely replicates actual rowing wherein the seat and the boat move relative to each other, and both move relative to the water.

 Bring the unparalleled full-body workout of on-the-water rowing home with the premium design and feel of the XTERRA Fitness ERG600W Water Rower. The full body rhythmic nature of rowing makes it wonderfully efficient at burning calories while also developing flexibility and strength. Plus, the "zen-like" water movement you hear from the ERG600W multi-bladed impeller can be soothing and meditative. The large and easy to read 5.5" LCD console with height and angle adjustment includes motivating programmable modes to keep you involved, inspired, and reaching your goals.
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