It's been nearly 30 years since John Duke, a former Yale University and USA National Team oarsman, set up a small shop in Rhode Island, USA to begin fine-tuning his innovative water-resistant rowing machine. With its beautiful design and unmatched feel, the WaterRower quickly gained a cult-like following of both on-water rowers and fitness enthusiasts that had found their perfect piece of workout equipment. As word spread of the new product that simulated the feel of on-water rowing, WaterRower transitioned from simply a one-off product found within the occasional boathouse to an established brand in both the rowing and fitness world.
At the collegiate level (in the United States), the lightweight weight requirements can be different depending on competitive season. For fall regattas (typically head races), the lightweight cutoff for men is 165.0 lb. and 135.0 lb. for women. In the spring season (typically sprint races), the lightweight cutoff for men is 160.0 lb., with a boat average of 155.0 lb. for the crew; for women, the lightweight cutoff is 130.0 lb.[48]
In a 1988 US patent (US4772013A), Elliot Tarlow discloses another non-elastic chain/cable take-up and handle return strategy. Described and depicted is a continuous chain/cable loop that passes around the flywheel sprocket and around and between fixed pulleys and sprockets positioned fore and aft on the device. The handle is secured in the middle of the exposed upper horizontal section of the chain/cable loop. Although somewhat lacking in aesthetics, the Tarlow device does eliminate the stated disadvantages and defects of the ubiquitous elastic cord handle return. Tarlow further argues that the disclosed method provides an improved replication of rowing because in actual rowing the rower is not assisted by the contraction of a spring or elastic cord during the "recovery" portion of the stroke. The rower must push the oar handle forward against wind and oarlock resistance in preparation for the next stroke. Tarlow asserts that the invention replicates that resistance.

The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
Instead of air or hydraulic resistance, the Elite Wave Water Rowing Machine emulates actual rowing with lifelike water resistance. The paddles glide through the water housed in the reservoir, making the rowing stroke smooth from start to finish, and like rowing on a body of water, the resistance increases infinitely the faster you row. Not only does this feel like rowing on water, it sounds like water. Different stroke speeds and intensities vary water motion, resulting in realistic water resonance.
At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water. The point of placement of the blade in the water is a relatively fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and then finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest. The hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm.

Most people assume that a speedier row is a more intense one, says Crawford. It's not. The power that each stroke generates is far more important to the workout's intensity. When your energy is dedicated to rowing as fast as possible, you end up exhausting yourself quickly without getting any meaningful work done. To get a sense of the power you're generating, focus on lowering your splits over a certain period of time, and/or on increasing your wattage. Most rowing machines track these metrics automatically.

Too many Fights Gone Bad? Tabata Interval blues? Try something different! Challenge yourself during one of our individual and team challenges, or join an affiliation! Keep track of your meters in our Online Logbook and work towards joining our Million Meter Clubs! Learn about these programs and more in our Motivation section. Visit our Service section, where you can find out everything from troubleshooting bumpy seat rollers to learning how to set up an interval workout with undefined rest on your Performance Monitor.

All rowing-machine designs consist of an energy damper or braking mechanism connected to a chain, strap, belt and/or handle. Footrests are attached to the same mounting as the energy damper. Most include a rail which either the seat or the mechanism slide upon. Different machines have a variety of layouts and damping mechanisms, each of which have certain advantages and disadvantages.

The WaterRower Xeno Müller Signature Edition rowing machine is handcrafted in solid ash and finished with honey oak stain for color. The WaterRower Xeno Müller Signature Edition has been specifically designed in collaboration with US Olympian and single scull record holder Xeno Müller. This special edition rower features a wider 17" handle and lower footrests for an increased range. Another special feature is Xeno\'s signature included on the rails of either side of the rower thus inspiring you to row like an Olympian!

Now we start to decrease the intensity and increase the volume of these workouts, which will improve overall endurance and stamina. Complete this workout, 10 minutes of rowing at a hard steady-state pace (that’s one set), and take 3 minutes of rest between each set. The rates are set slightly lower so you should be able to focus on technique and solidify your posture at the catch, as well improving overall stroke length.


The Waterrower has recently been made famous by Kevin Spacy as the rowing machine used in the ‘House of Cards’. It is a type of wooden rowing machine produced and manufactured by Waterrower Inc. in New England, USA. The rowers were designed by ex-US national team rower john Duke in the mid 1980’s and the company to manufacture them was established in 1988.


Yes! The mother of indoor rowing competitions is the CRASH-B Sprints, held annually in Boston. The Charles River All-Star Has-Beens started when the U.S. boycotted the Olympics in 1980 — during the same era that Concept 2 launched their Model A; necessity met opportunity. CRASH-B is still held with aplomb and doesn’t require any special qualification of its applicants.
While the WaterRower has been around since 1988, it experienced a revival of sorts after its starring role in the Netflix series, House of Cards. The beauty of the machine is that it’s built to blend in with its surroundings, so you don’t have to banish it to your gym dungeon. At CityRow and Orangetheory gyms, the WaterRower is the lead feature of each class. “When I first saw the WaterRower, I thought, ‘Is that the same [machine] as the dusty metal one I’m picturing empty in the corner gym?'” Helaine Knapp, founder and CEO of CityRow, says. “When I dug into the specifics of the WaterRower, I learned it was perfect for group fitness and changing the perception people might have historically (from CrossFit, rowing on the water, etc.),” Knapp adds. The machine is smooth, easy-to-use and works for everyone from beginners to experts. The soothing sound of water rushing around the base of the machine is also a big plus.
The WaterRower Natural is handcrafted from solid Ash wood, finished with a honey oak stain and danish oil. The WaterRower's patented WaterFlywheel has been specifically designed to emulate the dynamics of a boat moving though water and is unsurpassed in its simulation of the physical and physiological benefits of rowing. WaterRower will not provide support or documentation for any product transported outside of the original country of purchase

Outside of resistance type, we found the number-one arbiter of ride feel to be cord quality. Water ergometers tend to employ nylon cords, while air ergometers feature metal chains — a durability factor we anticipated would result in our favoring air. But while all three water rowers aced our expectation of smooth, high-tension strokes, perfecting the chain seems to be more difficult: Some tug with just a slight rumble, others feature bouncy, grinding chains that are incredibly loud, something akin to angry snoring. As for nylon, the best wind and unwind like elastic silk — no slack, no sound, no catching, just perfectly even tension throughout the stroke.


If you are anything like me, you read the negative reviews to see what some of the complaints could potentially be...I have found none that match with my machine or experience so far. The boxes it came in were a little bunged-up but everything on the inside was perfect. Only took about 15-20 minutes to build (first time building a row machine) and another 5-10 to fill with water. We used it for a little while before we added the danish oil.

In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands. This is generally done in pairs, fours, and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is rowing on bow side and/or the bow oarsman on stroke side.


Unlike its WaterRower Natural cousin, the WaterRower Club is designed for high-traffic areas, such as commercial gyms, studios, and rehabilitation clinics. Its dual black rails have been styled to prevent scuffing, while the other wood components are finished in an attractive rosewood, which is more resistant to soiling than the Natural model. Other details include four corner wheels on the rails that increase seat stability and reduce the amount of sweat buildup; a frame that flips upright for handy storage; and a weight capacity of up to 1,000 pounds. The WaterRower Club measures 84 by 21 by 22 inches (W x H x D), weighs 117 pounds (with water), and carries a one-year warranty on the frame and components (WaterRower will upgrade the warranty to five years on the frame and three years on the components with the completion of a registration form).
The first indoor rowing competition "was held in Cambridge, MA in February 1982 with participation of 96 on-water rowers" who called themselves the "Charles River Association of Sculling Has-Beens" [12]. Thus the acronym, "CRASH-B". A large number of indoor rowing competitions are now held worldwide, including the indoor rowing world championships (still known as CRASH-B Sprints) held in Boston, Massachusetts, United States in February and the British Indoor Rowing Championships held in Birmingham, England in November, or in more recent years the Lee Valley VeloPark London in December; both are rowed on Concept2s. The core event for most competitions is the individual 2000-m; less common are the mile (e.g., Evesham), the 2500-m (e.g., Basingstoke—also the original distance of the CRASH-B Sprints). Many competitions also include a sprint event (100m-500m) and sometimes team relay events.
Note: Some states do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above limitations may not apply to you. Some states do not allow the exclusion on limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
The dense resistance of water creates substantial drag, but on the WaterRower models, this is perfectly tempered by a whippy cord. It coils and recoils with such steady speed that one tester noted how the Classic “eats the rope back up on recovery.” This smooth agility helps balance out the impact of encountering slow water at the start of every stroke.
Regarding comparability of results between machines: As stated, the above indoor rowing competitions use the Concept 2 rowing ergometer, currently the Model D, which like previous models, is equipped with an electronic performance monitor that compensates for differences in resistance adjustment (1989 US Patent US4875674A; Assignee: Concept 2). Therefore it is widely accepted that a result on one machine can be fairly compared with a result on another machine regardless of their respective resistance settings. The assumed consistency between machines would be correct if another, unmeasured resistance variable did not exist. This is the variability of the resistance of the elastic cord used to take up the chain and return the handle. The electronic performance monitor only measures the energy expended to spin the flywheel. It does this via small magnets embedded in the face of the flywheel which pass a sensor connected to the performance monitor (see patent US4875674A referenced above). The monitor does not measure the energy required to stretch the elastic cord, therefore unless the force required to stretch the elastic cord is a guaranteed constant, there is no guarantee that the performance monitor will display the actual total energy expended by the user.
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No matter the resistance we set or the power we applied, the machine remains sturdy, centered, and even. We amped up the intensity for 2000m sprints and found that the C2 supports consistent effort in a way water resistance can’t. The machine assists in keeping your intensity uniform, because it stores up remaining energy in the spinning flywheel. Comments about the ride feel of both Concept 2s were noticeably brief. As one tester put it, “It’s unremarkable because it’s good,” and leaves you free to focus on the effort you’re putting into your workout.

In the patent record, means are disclosed whereby the chain/cable take-up and handle return are accomplished without the use of a spring or elastic cord, thereby avoiding the stated disadvantages and defects of this broadly used method. One example is the Gjessing-Nilson device described above. Partially discernable in the thumbnail photo, it utilizes a cable wrapped around a helical pulley on the flywheel shaft, the ends of this cable being connected to opposite ends of a long pole to which a handle is fixed. The obvious disadvantage of this system is the forward space requirement to accommodate the extension of the handle pole at the "catch" portion of the stroke. The advantage is that, except for small transmission losses, all of the user's energy output is imparted to the flywheel, where it can be accurately measured, not split between the flywheel and an elastic cord of variable, unmeasured resistance. If a similar system were installed on all rowing ergometers used in indoor rowing competitions, consistency between machines would be guaranteed because the variability factor of elastic cord resistance would be eliminated, and this would therefore ensure that the monitor displayed actual user energy input.

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