In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles. In an 8+ the stern pair are responsible for setting the stroke rate and rhythm for the rest of the boat to follow. The middle four (sometimes called the "engine room" or "power house") are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat. They also have most influence on the line the boat steers.
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The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move the oar back to the catch position. In extraction, the rower pushes down on the oar handle to quickly lift the blade from the water and rapidly rotates the oar so that the blade is parallel to the water. This process is sometimes referred to as feathering the blade. Simultaneously, the rower pushes the oar handle away from the chest. The blade emerges from the water square and feathers immediately once clear of the water. After feathering and extending the arms, the rower pivots the body forward. Once the hands are past the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern of the boat. The leg compression occurs relatively slowly compared to the rest of the stroke, which affords the rower a moment to recover, and allows the boat to glide through the water. The gliding of the boat through the water during recovery is often called run.

In the rowing machine category, there are a lot of models to chose from. They range in price from under $100 to well over $1500.  As you can imagine, you’re getting a different type of row machine at those ends of the spectrum, but within that variety there’s something for everyone.  To help guide you, we’ve listed our favorite row machine models and brands by price below:
Head races are time trial / processional races that take place from autumn (fall) to early spring (depending on local conditions). Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10 – 20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head courses usually vary in length from 2,000 metres (1.24 mi) to 12,000 metres (7.46 mi), though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon and shorter such as Pairs Head.
The weight adjustment calculator can be a helpful tool because it provides a way to compare indoor rowing performances between people of different weights. It shifts focus away from absolute power toward power to body weight ratio. If you have a large friend who always beats you indoor rowing, challenge them to a weight-adjusted race! Continue Reading ›
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I loathe exercise. Will do almost anything to avoid it, like holding down a couch or going to wash a car. But the time came to find something that I could do that would get me into regular exercise and make the most of the time. After researching, I found that rowing was almost universally lauded as a great full body workout that does not abuse your joints, and requires only a minimal time commitment. After searching and researching , the Water Rower consistently came out at the top of the pile. So I spent the big bucks and ordered one.
The Rekers rowing ergometer (referenced above) is described in the title of the patent document as "dynamically balanced", rather than simply "dynamic", as is common among users. "Dynamically balanced" is the accurate description, for the following reason: During the drive portion of the stroke, since the sliding carriage to which the footrests are attached, and the sliding seat, can both move independently fore and aft on a rail or rails, therefore the straightening of the user's legs causes the footrests to slide forward, and simultaneously causes the seat to slide rearward. However, since the combined mass of the seat and user is considerably greater than the combined mass of the footrests and sliding carriage (and flywheel, if it is part of the sliding footrests assembly), therefore the rearward movement of the seat and user, relative to ground, is much less than the forward movement of the footrests and carriage assembly, relative to ground. During the recovery portion of the stroke, this difference in mass has the same effect. The sliding footrests carriage, and the sliding seat carrying the user move proportionately the same distances relative to ground as during the drive as they return to their starting positions. Thus, during use, the combined mass of the footrest and sliding carriage, and the combined mass of the user and sliding seat, move towards and away from each other, as they oscillate about their common centre of gravity. To ensure the linked movement of these two masses remain centred on the device, the rail or rails upon which they slide are sloped upward slightly at their front and rear ends. Alternatively, elastic cords or springs attached to the seat and footrests can ensure such centering.

No matter what your age is, a fitness plan that includes cardio (or aerobic exercise) is an important contributor to your overall health. The benefits of regular aerobic exercise include weight loss, increased stamina, and a stronger immune system. Endorphins released while you work out can also help improve your mood and sleep quality. Because it requires the use of so many major muscle groups, a rowing machine is an effective way to raise your heart rate and increase your oxygen intake for an effective cardio workout. The adjustable resistance on most rowers lets you easily work up to your target heart rate as well as slow back down to your resting rate.
Indoor rowers which utilize a pivoting handle or handles to simulate a sweep or sculling stroke (thus referred to as "rowing simulators"), can be of the above described "stationary" or "dynamically balanced" type of rowing ergometer. The Coffey rowing machine, designed by Olympic silver medalist rower, Calvin Coffey, can be configured to enable a sweep or a sculling stroke, in either a "stationary" or "dynamically balanced" mode. The flywheel is positioned horizontally at the rear of the device, under the seat rails (US patents: US4743011A 1988; US7862484B1; Inventor: Calvin Coffey).
First launched in 1976, Concept 2 churns out high-quality equipment that can be found in gyms nationwide, as well as at the indoor world rowing championships. Elite athletes use Concept 2 machines to push them to new levels. The Model D is easy to use: on the performance monitor, just hit row to get going, and the air resistance flywheel increases its difficulty with a slight push or pull on the damper. To store, separate the machine at the middle, tuck away the arm and roll the resistance sphere to a closet or corner.
The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
Indoor rowing primarily works the cardiovascular systems with typical workouts consisting of steady pieces of 20–40 minutes, although the standard trial distance for record attempts is 2000 m, which can take from five and a half minutes (best elite rowers) to nine minutes or more. Like other forms of cardio focused exercise, interval training is also commonly used in indoor rowing. While cardio-focused, rowing also stresses many muscle groups throughout the body anaerobically, thus rowing is often referred to as a strength-endurance sport.
Don't know why, perhaps due to rising demand and production bandwidth, but be forewarned quality control is an issue. Assembly is easy enough, though have gap where back separator does not fit snugly after tightening nuts as firm as they will go (see pic). No water level sticker on tank received, so had to measure water manually according to calculations (4 gallons). Siphon was not air tight (even though release valve closed firmly), so had to manually pump instead of siphon. S4 monitor only flashes, not working as of yet and now have to take a apart top of unit to figure out why, currently not resolved after verifying connections and looking at simple solutions on website.
Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race typically varies between two (which is sometimes referred to as a dual race) to eight, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough.

The Verified Sustainable Hardwoods used for the WaterRower are sourced from the Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern United States, where planting rates exceed harvest rates by an average multiple of 2.29. The Appalachian Hardwood Timber resource includes more than 65.4 million acres in the eastern United States and provides the world with a bounty of the finest hardwood species.


“I always try to reinforce the need to swing over from the hips and not simply by curving you back. This is crucial to avoid injury and to get you into a stronger position to be ready for the next stroke,” says Frandsen. Even as you start to get tired or feel fatigued, don’t allow yourself to slouch or to collapse into the “catch”–swing over early in the stroke and then think about your chest rising up to the catch.

The most recent models of the erg, produced by Concept 2 (pictured above), have a screen with different options for what measurements or figures you want to see during your workout. Using the screen, you can monitor calories expended and watts produced, but “the vast majority of rowers will set the screen to track their 500-meter split or just simply ‘split,’” according to Teti. The stroke rate, which appears on the screen as “SPM,” refers to the number of strokes you are taking per minute. Typically the split and stroke rating have an inverse relationship, meaning that when you increase your stroke rating, the split should go down.
Rowing is a repetitive, rhythmic motion, meaning you have to match up your breathing to that rhythm. Have you ever linked your breathing to your running or swimming? This is just like that. Similar to strength workouts, you want to breathe out when exerting power and breathe in when recovering. In this case, that means breathing out when you push with your legs and pull back, and breathing in when you’re resetting (rebending your legs).
The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move the oar back to the catch position. In extraction, the rower pushes down on the oar handle to quickly lift the blade from the water and rapidly rotates the oar so that the blade is parallel to the water. This process is sometimes referred to as feathering the blade. Simultaneously, the rower pushes the oar handle away from the chest. The blade emerges from the water square and feathers immediately once clear of the water. After feathering and extending the arms, the rower pivots the body forward. Once the hands are past the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern of the boat. The leg compression occurs relatively slowly compared to the rest of the stroke, which affords the rower a moment to recover, and allows the boat to glide through the water. The gliding of the boat through the water during recovery is often called run.

Unlike its WaterRower Natural cousin, the WaterRower Club is designed for high-traffic areas, such as commercial gyms, studios, and rehabilitation clinics. Its dual black rails have been styled to prevent scuffing, while the other wood components are finished in an attractive rosewood, which is more resistant to soiling than the Natural model. Other details include four corner wheels on the rails that increase seat stability and reduce the amount of sweat buildup; a frame that flips upright for handy storage; and a weight capacity of up to 1,000 pounds. The WaterRower Club measures 84 by 21 by 22 inches (W x H x D), weighs 117 pounds (with water), and carries a one-year warranty on the frame and components (WaterRower will upgrade the warranty to five years on the frame and three years on the components with the completion of a registration form).


The WaterRower Classic Rowing Machine is a work of art. But before you buy one just to hang it on the wall, the more important feature of course is that this rowing machine is a high-quality, durable, and effective piece of exercise equipment that will help you get in top fitness with ease and low-impact comfort. With a user weight capacity of 1,000 lbs, WaterRower has built the Classic Rowing Machine to take everything you can throw at it. No matter how intense your workouts are, you’re not going to hurt this machine. And it accommodates everyone from beginner rowers to experienced die-hards.
Rowing has long been recognized as the perfect aerobic pursuit, with naturally smooth and flowing movements that don't tax the joints but do boost the heart rate. Now you can take your rowing experience to the next level with the WaterRower Classic rowing machine. Using the same principles that govern the dynamics of a boat in water, the WaterRower Classic is outfitted with a "water flywheel" that consists of two paddles in an enclosed tank of water that provide smooth, quiet resistance, just like the paddles in an actual body of water. As a result, the machine has no moving parts that can wear out over time (even the recoil belt and pulleys don't require lubricating or maintaining). More significantly, the water tank and flywheel create a self-regulating resistance system that eliminates the need for a motor. As with real rowing, when you paddle faster, the increased drag provides more resistance. When you paddle slower, the resistance is less intense. The only limit to how fast you can row is your strength and your ability to overcome drag. And unlike conventional rowing machines, which tend to be jerky and jarring, the WaterRower Classic is remarkably smooth and fluid.

Unlike most other non-combat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight (Lwt for short). According to FISA, this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people". The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996.
Just as your arms, back, and legs need to be positioned a certain way, so do your hands. It might not seem important, but the way you hold onto the handle could affect the way your arms move and work throughout your set. Avoid using an underhand grip and go for the overhand. Your knuckles should face forward, with your thumb placed on the underside of the handle. Keep your wrist flat—not leaning outwards. If you find that your grip strength is subpar, move your thumb to the top of the handle along with your other fingers to build strength. Just don’t grip so hard that you rough up your palms.
Con's: Super bummed that for $1160 they couldn't include an internal ANT+ transponder and Heart Rate strap(sub $100 package). The foot straps are crap! Within the first 1000m of moderate rowing they loosen to the point of being able to pull foot out on Recovery of stroke(Yes, even with ball of foot down). I really wish the WaterCoach F.I.T. software for the S4 Monitor was macOS compatible. It'd be nice to able to customer program workouts on my MacBook Pro or iMac.
Row for 1 minute applying as much power and force as you can, then take 1 minute of very light strokes for rest. That’s one rep. Complete 5 reps and then take a short break, no more than a few minutes, before moving on to the next set. Similarly, the goal is to hold the lowest split possible in the hard pieces. The prescribed stroke rates are 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 for the first set; 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 for the second; and 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 for the third. 
Unlike most other non-combat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight (Lwt for short). According to FISA, this weight category was introduced "to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people". The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996.
Remember how we said to sit up straight? This is more on that. It’s important to keep your back at, or just past, a 90-degree angle in order to prevent injury, and to get that overall smooth motion on the machine. The reason people tend to bend too far forward and pull with their torso, is because it seems to give them more power post-row. In reality, this only puts your back in a bad position. To make sure you’re not leaning too far, check your feet. Even when leaning forward, you never want your heels to break contact with the pedals. Most of all, bend at your hips, instead of curving your spine.
John Duke, creator of the WaterRower, was inspired to try his hand at invention while working at a subsidiary for U.S. Steel. He wanted to make an indoor machine that felt as much like real rowing as possible, with a focus on aesthetics. It took him two years to get the design right, moving past failed ideas such as a flipper in the tank instead of a clutch. What began as a series of doodles at his desk turned into a sculptural piece of exercise equipment that upends expectations in two ways: by bringing water indoors, and by looking elegant and artful when stored.
“I always try to reinforce the need to swing over from the hips and not simply by curving you back. This is crucial to avoid injury and to get you into a stronger position to be ready for the next stroke,” says Frandsen. Even as you start to get tired or feel fatigued, don’t allow yourself to slouch or to collapse into the “catch”–swing over early in the stroke and then think about your chest rising up to the catch.

Award Winning Design - The WaterRower has been designed to set it apart from other fitness equipment, featuring an attention to detail unseen in other exercise equipment. Refined Design - The WaterRower has been designed to set it apart from other fitness equipment, featuring an attention to design refinement unseen in other exercise equipment. Hand Crafting - WaterRower’s wooden models are handcrafted from a selection of the world’s finest hard woods (Ash, Cherry, Walnut, Beech and Oak).. Each model is hand finished and coated with Danish oil giving it a deep penetrating Luster. Sustainable & Eco-Friendly - All WaterRower's wooden models are crafted from the finest Appalachian hardwoods sourced only from replenishable forests.
The most recent models of the erg, produced by Concept 2 (pictured above), have a screen with different options for what measurements or figures you want to see during your workout. Using the screen, you can monitor calories expended and watts produced, but “the vast majority of rowers will set the screen to track their 500-meter split or just simply ‘split,’” according to Teti. The stroke rate, which appears on the screen as “SPM,” refers to the number of strokes you are taking per minute. Typically the split and stroke rating have an inverse relationship, meaning that when you increase your stroke rating, the split should go down.

Row for 1 minute applying as much power and force as you can, then take 1 minute of very light strokes for rest. That’s one rep. Complete 5 reps and then take a short break, no more than a few minutes, before moving on to the next set. Similarly, the goal is to hold the lowest split possible in the hard pieces. The prescribed stroke rates are 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 for the first set; 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 for the second; and 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 for the third. 
A feature of the end of twentieth century rowing was the development of non-olympic multicrew racing boats, typically fixed seat-gigs, pilot boats and in Finland church- or longboats. The most usual craft in races held around the coasts of Britain during summer months is the Cornish pilot gig, most typically in the south-west, with crews of 6 from local towns and races of varying distances. The Cornish pilot gig was designed and built to ferry harbour and river pilots to and from ships in fierce coastal waters. The boat needed to be stable and fast with the large crew hence making it ideal for its modern racing usage. In Finland 14-oared churchboats race throughout the summer months, usually on lakes, and often with mixed crews. The largest gathering sees over 7000 rowers mainly rowing the 60 kilometres (37 mi) course at Sulkava[38] near the eastern border over a long weekend in mid July. The weekend features the World Masters churchboat event which also includes a 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) dash.[39]

Performance is meaningless if you can’t or don’t want to use the equipment, and that’s why the Wave Water rower was built for comfort and convenience. With a wide, molded seat to accommodate users of all sizes and a padded, textured rowing handle, you can build your strength and endurance in ease. When setting up the rower, the leveling endcaps with a dial ensure stability. After your workout, storing your Wave Water rower is easy – just fold the frame and roll the rower into a closet or corner.
The WaterRower Oxbridge is hand crafted in solid Cherrywood. Like all woods, Cherrywood may vary in color from a red-brown to deep red. The wood will darken in color with exposure to light. For this reason all WaterRower Cherrywood components are kept in light free rooms to protect from shadowing. A new WaterRower Oxbridge will therefore appear quite light in color. The wood will however darken over time reaching a rich reddish hue. Each machine has been hand finished with three coats of Danish Oil giving a deep lustre an warmth to the wood. Wood has been chosen due to its marvellous engineering properties, primary amongst these is its ability to absorb sound and vibration enhancing the WaterRower's quietness and smoothness of use. Cherrywood, like all woods used in WaterRower construction, is a premium hardwood with incredible longevity and dimensional stability. For reasons of ecology, all our woods are harvested from replenishable forests.
The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180° turn requires mastery of steering. These races are popular with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only two boats would race at once to avoid collision. The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but it is run as a head race with an interval start.[42] A similar type of racing is found in UK and Irish coastal rowing, where a number of boats race out to a given point from the coast and then return fighting rough water all the way. In Irish coastal rowing the boats are in individual lanes with the races consisting of up to 3 turns to make the race distance 2.3 km.
The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers - by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
After bending forward, refrain from pulling back the handle using your back; instead, push your legs against the pedals to avoid back strain (and get a killer leg workout). As for arms, keep both of your elbows tucked at your sides, pulling until they pass your torso and the rower handle is around an inch away from the bottom of your ribs (or sports bra). Got all of that? Now, perform smoothly in the order of legs, hips, arms, arms, hips, legs. Repeat!
Rowing on an ergometer requires four basics phases to complete one stroke; the catch, the drive, the finish and the recovery. The catch is the initial part of the stroke. The drive is where the power from the rower is generated while the finish is the final part of the stroke. Then, the recovery is the initial phase to begin taking a new stroke. The phases repeat until a time duration or a distance is completed.
Early rowing machines are known to have existed from the mid-1800s, a US patent being issued to W.B. Curtis in 1872 for a particular hydraulic based damper design. Machines using linear pneumatic resistance were common around 1900—one of the most popular was the Narragansett hydraulic rower, manufactured in Rhode Island from around 1900–1960.[2] However they did not simulate actual rowing very accurately nor measure power output.
As far as “racing”, I said an air rowing machine is better because the Concept2 is the only model used for indoor rowing competitions, setting world records, and entering your actual scores online. It is because their monitor can calculate the drag factor of the flywheel in real time and accurately calculate distance and time. Small changes such as dust build up, air temperature, and humidity will not change the times between different machines because the drag factor is calculated every stroke.
Rowing is a cyclic (or intermittent) form of propulsion such that in the quasi-steady state the motion of the system (the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat), is repeated regularly. In order to maintain the steady-state propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero. Thus, the average drag (retarding) force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consist of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system (components of the boat situated above the waterline), as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Note also that the oar can be used to provide a drag force (a force acting against the forward motion) when the system is brought to rest.
If you feel like your get-up-and-go has got-up-and-went, chances are you may not be getting enough physical activity. Rowing machine workouts may feel exhausting at first, but the long-term benefits of regular exercise will increase your endurance and give you more energy. Because rowing exercise is cardiovascular and works out all your major muscle groups, it’s a step above many other types of workout equipment. With repeated use, you will gain increased stamina and boost your metabolism. More energy means more drive to do the things you love!

Rowing technique on the erg broadly follows the same pattern as that of a normal rowing stroke on water, but with minor modifications: it is not necessary to "tap down" at the finish, since there are no blades to extract from water; but many who also row on water do this anyway. Also, the rigid, single-piece handle enables neither a sweep nor a sculling stroke. The oar handle during a sweep stroke follows a long arc, while the oar handles during a sculling stroke follow two arcs. The standard handle does neither. But regardless of this, to reduce the chance of injury, an exercise machine should enable a bio-mechanically correct movement of the user. The handle is the interface between the human and the machine, and should adapt to the natural movement of the user, not the user to the machine, as is now the case. During competitions an exaggerated finish is often used, whereby the hands are pulled further up the chest than would be possible on the water, resulting in a steep angulation of the wrists - but even with a normal stroke, stop-action images show wrist angulation at the finish, evidence that the standard rigid, single-piece handle does not allow the user to maintain a bio-mechanically correct alignment of hands, wrists, and forearms in the direction of applied force. On the Concept 2 website "Forum", many regular users of the indoor rower have complained of chronic wrist pain. Some have rigged handgrips with flexible straps to enable their hands, wrists, and forearms to maintain proper alignment, and thereby reduce the possibility of repetitive strain injury. Rowing machine manufacturers have ignored this problem.
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